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Mark McCrosky

Kicking around in technology since 2002. I like to write about technology products and ideas, but at the consumer level understanding. Some tech, but not too techie. Posting on Quora.com as well.

Key Value Store Computational Storage Device for NAND

Key Value Store Computational Storage Device, KV-CSD

KV-CSD is an acronym for Key Value Store Computational Storage Device and Hynix a NAND memory manufacturer is directing their technology towards this storage approach.

Here at GetUSB.info we focus on NAND memory and typically look at the write speeds of devices. However, for data centers and analytic companies, the ability to retrieve data is more important. The ability to read the index of where data is and then retrieve it is a key part for data analytics and how companies can react to queries.

Just imagine something like an insurance company holding millions of policies and related customers who need to search and sort through large amounts of data quickly while servicing customers… now imagine that same requirement during a natural disaster where the incoming requests skyrocket. Quickly finding the data needed becomes a mission critical task.

Traditional methods for indexing are “relationship databases” and done on a file-record level. A file-record indexing approach uses predefined data structures in the database as a series of tables containing data about the type of information related to the files, like meta-data tags.

In contrast, key–value systems treat the data as a single transparent collection which can have many different values for each record in a column structure. The indexing values in a column provide a more efficient method to search the indexed data to more efficiently find the requested data.

What Hynix is doing is introducing a method to index content on the fly (as it’s being written) into NAND memory so when a subsequent search is performed the result will present itself more quickly.

Hynix teamed with Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico who is a multidisciplinary research institution engaged in strategic science on behalf of national security, and managed by Triad, a public service-oriented, national security science organization equally owned by its three founding members: Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), the Texas A&M University System (TAMUS), and the Regents of the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration.

Los Alamos enhances national security by ensuring the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile, developing technologies to reduce threats from weapons of mass destruction, and solving problems related to energy, environment, infrastructure, health, and global security concerns.

Reference material: Los Alamos National Laboratory website page about collaboration.

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Samsung UFS 4.0 Has 2,800MB/Second Write Speeds

Samsung, UFS 4.0

UFS 4.0 Has 2,800MB/Second Write Speeds

Samsung claims to have created the industry’s highest performing Universal Flash Storage (UFS). With read speeds of up to 4,200MB/s and write speeds of up to 2,800MB/s, UFS 4.0 is twice as fast as the previous generation.

Not only is UFS 4.0 faster than previous generations, but Samsung claims it also consumes less power. As a result, the company claims that it will be at the heart of future mobile storage solutions, having a dramatic impact on smartphone performance as well as having a significant impact on augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) hardware.

According to Samsung, UFS 4.0 comes in a small package that measures 11mm by 13mm by 1mm and can support capacities of up to 1TB. This 1 TB has a sequential read speed of 6 MB/s per mA, a 46 percent improvement over the previous generation’s power consumption.

“UFS 4.0 offers up to 23.2Gbps per lane, which is double that of the previous UFS 3.1,” Samsung claims. “That much bandwidth is ideal for 5G smartphones, which require massive amounts of data processing, and it is also expected to be used in future automotive applications, AR, and VR.”

The performance is also impressive, with a sequential read speed of up to 4,200MB/s and a sequential write speed of up to 2,800MB/s promised. The previous generation, UFS 3.1, could promise write speeds of up to 1,200 MB/s. More than doubling the previous generation’s speed while using nearly half the power is likely to have a significant positive impact on device performance.

JEDEC, the Solid State Technology Association, an independent semiconductor engineering trade organization and standardization body, has approved the UFS 4.0 standard specification. Samsung says mass production of UFS 4.0 storage will begin in the third quarter of 2022, and that it is collaborating with smartphone and consumer device manufacturers from around the world to create an ecosystem of support for UFS 4.0 to make market adoption easier and faster.

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Micron Technology Announces 232 Layer 3D NAND by End of 2022

Micron announced the industry’s first 3D NAND memory device with 232 layers on Thursday. The company intends to use its new 232-layer 3D NAND products for a variety of applications, including solid-state drives, and expects to begin mass production of such chips in late 2022.

micron, 3d nand, 232 layer

Micron’s 232-layer 3D NAND device has a raw capacity of 1Tb and a 3D TLC architecture (128GB). The chip is based on Micron’s CMOS under array (CuA) architecture and stacks two arrays of 3D NAND on top of each other using the NAND string stacking technique.

The CuA design, combined with 232 layers of NAND, will significantly reduce the die size of Micron’s 1Tb 3D TLC NAND memory, allowing Micron to price devices featuring these chips more aggressively or simply increase its margins.

Micron did not specify I/O speeds or the number of planes in its new 232L 3D TLC NAND IC, but it did state that the new memory will outperform existing 3D NAND devices, which will be especially useful for next-generation SSDs with a PCIe 5.0 interface.

Speaking of SSDs, Micron’s executive vice president of technology and products, Scott DeBoer, stated that the company has worked closely with developers of in-house and third-party NAND controllers (for SSDs and other NAND-based storage devices) to ensure proper support for the new type of memory (and make sure those upcoming drives end up in our best SSDs list).

“We optimized [232-layer 3D NAND] technology around what we need to make the world’s fastest managed NAND and both datacenter and client SSD products,” said DeBoer. “The combination of controllers, both internal and external, has been a strong element of our vertical product integration focus to ensure that we have optimized NAND and controller technology for what we need to deliver future leadership products.”

Among the benefits of its 232-layer 3D TLC NAND are Micron mentioned lower power consumption compared to previous-generation nodes, which will be another advantage given Micron’s historical focus on mobile applications and relationships with device makers.

Given that Micron will begin production of 232-layer 3D TLC NAND devices in late calendar 2022, we can expect SSDs powered by the new memory to arrive in 2023.

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What Is 3D NAND Flash Memory?

3D NAND, flash drive

3D NAND was developed in response to the scaling limitations of 2D NAND memory.

The layers in 3D NAND were flipped from horizontal to vertical orientation and strings of them were built to form a tower. By changing the direction of how the cells are configured created opportunity to increase storage capacity, reduce size of the storage area and reduce the power consumption to access the cells.

Honestly, it’s a complicated explanation to describe the changes between 2D and 3D NAND, but we found this awesome video from TechTarget. The video is very direct and to the point without over complicated explanations. Please watch it. 2min 20 seconds long.

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The Difference: TF Card vs micro SD Card

TF Card vs micro SD Card

Help! Is a TF card or microSD card required for my device? What IS the difference?

When it comes to memory cards, the market offers a plethora of options aimed at various devices. TF cards and microSD cards are two of the most well-known of these options. These cards are used as primary or secondary storage devices in a wide range of devices.

Having said that, there is some misunderstanding about what a TF card is. Is there a distinction between a TF card and a microSD card? Is it the same thing? Which one should I choose?

What Is a TF Card?

In 2004, Motorola and SanDisk introduced TransFlash (TF) cards as a replacement for SD cards. Secure Digital cards (SD cards), as you know, are memory cards used in digital cameras and other devices which require portable storage. Although SD cards are the most widely used storage format, they are larger and more cumbersome than a TF card.

TF cards were designed to be smaller and more compact than SD cards while still retaining SD card functionality. This means you can use a TF memory card in your digital camera or any other device that accepts an SD card with the help of an SD card adapter.

What is a MicroSD Card?

MicroSD cards are simply rebranded TF cards. When Motorola and SanDisk released the TF card in 2004, it was released as a separate standalone product. Aside from the fact that TF cards supported the same standard specifications as SD cards (except for the size), they were a distinct, non-standardized product class.

The SD Association, which is the governing body over the Secure Digital specifications and compliance guidelines, adopted TF cards as microSD cards to standardize these flash memory cards.

So, microSD cards are TF cards in disguise.

TF Card vs. microSD Card: What’s the Difference?

There are no distinctions between TF cards and microSD cards. Both can be used interchangeably. For example, if you have a TF card but your smartphone only supports microSD cards, you can use your TF card. It will work perfectly because it adheres to the same standard.

Which Card to Pick Up?

If you need a memory card for your digital camera or older gadgets but don’t need one for your smartphone, a full-sized SD card is the way to go.

On the contrary, if you need a card for your smartphone alone, you have no other option than a microSD card.

Finally, get a microSD card with an SD adapter so that you can use your card in both your smartphone and other devices. Because MicroSD cards use the same standard interface as SD cards, they can be used in place of SD cards with the help of an SD card adapter.

TF Card vs micro SD Card, adapter

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Micron – Offers NAND with Highest Number of Layers = 176

Micron, 7450, 176 Layer

Micron Technology, Inc. (Nasdaq: MU) has announced the availability of a sample of the world’s first vertically-integrated 176-layer NAND solid-state drive (SSD) for data center applications. This new data center SSD features Micron’s industry-leading NAND with 176 layers of storage cells and proven CMOS-under-the-array technology for an ultra-efficient design.

Last year, organizations that used high encryption standards for data at rest and in motion paid 29.4 percent less for a data breach than organizations that used low or no standard encryption. Micron SSDs include self-encrypting drive functionality and Microsoft eDrive options to help protect against data breaches and tailor security to specific data protection needs.

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Press Release: Nexcopy announces new ultra-fast SD Card Duplicator

Copy 1GB of data every 30 seconds with the all new 16 target SD Card Duplicator by Nexcopy. Improved copy speeds result in ultra-fast Secure Digital copier outperforming all other systems.

SD Card Duplicator

The all new SD160PC is a computer connected SD Card Duplicator manufactured by Nexcopy Inc., a California based technology company. The Drive Manager software is written and developed by Nexcopy and provides Users with the most feature rich software to perform the most complex data load projects.

  • Copy 1GB of data to all sockets Every 30 seconds.
  • Read CID numbers from Secure Digital cards.
  • Drive Manager software provides six copy modes.
  • Software supports any file format (copy mode dependent).
  • User profiles in software to control employee access.

As with previous models, the SD160PC SD Card Duplicator can read CID numbers of Secure Digital media. The CID number is a Card ID number written into read-only memory by the card manufacturer and read back through a hardware chip and vendor command on a host system such as the SD160PC. A card ID number is an extra layer of security for encrypted content written to Secure Digital media. Nexcopy displays the CID number of each card with the option to download and export said CID numbers to a .csv file.

Please visit the SD160PC product page to view details about the product including a live speed test (video) displaying the copy speed of SD card duplicator system.

The SD160PC is currently shipping and available for purchase from Nexcopy directly or through our global reseller channel of authorized resellers.

Nexcopy announced the SD Card Duplicator product release through PRLeap Press Service on March 30,2022

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What is the Difference Between Disc and Disk?

For the purpose of this article we are explaining the difference between “disc” and “disk” in relationship to the terms applied to technology products.

The term “disc” is most often referred to data storage in the form of optical media.

The term “disk” is most often referred to data storage in the form of hard drive or solid state drive media.

It is also said the spelling “disc” is more commonly used in Europe to describe data storage products; whereas the spelling “disk” is more commonly used in the United States.

From our understanding the origins of “disk” to describe data storage is rooted from the floppy diskette days. Users, resellers and manufacturers would shorten the word “diskette” to simply use the word “disk.” ( ref )

Once optical media such as CD and CD-R came to market the term “disc” was used to describe the product because of the product shape. The Latin word “discus” is used by the Greeks to describe “dikein” which is “to throw” and to throw and object which was flat and round.

As the years past with CD and CD-R and then DVD and DVD-R it came even more common for technology users, resellers and manufacturers to use the spelling “disc” to describe their optical media products.

Here at GetFlashMemory.info we see many versions of the spelling when describing a USB flash drive or disk. The correct spelling when related to a USB flash drive would be “USB disk.” This is true because the data storage device does not have a physical shape which is round.

About one year ago, we did report on a USB flash drive which emulates CD-ROM optical media when connected to computers, called the Disc License drive. In this situation the spelling for “disc” is correct because the product emulates that of a circular optical drive. This product is a WORM device (Write Once Read Many) which means the data on the USB drive cannot be modified, changed, manipulated or deleted.

Difference Between Disc and Disk

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SD Card Duplicator With Unique Data Streaming

You’ve heard the quote “the devil is in the details” and when it comes to duplication of data to SD cards, nothing can be more true. Today we talk about an SD Card Duplicator which provides the ability to data stream unique content to each card.

Typically a user would duplicate the same content to SD cards because they intend to make many copies of the same content. However, my companies who use SD media (or microSD media) want to not only copy the same content to each card, but also copy unique data to each card.

Let us dig a little deeper with an example:

It is very common for companies who generate map data also want to protect their mapping information. Maps are expensive to make and often times hold proprietary information that company wants to protect. So when it comes time to use an SD Card Duplicator to make hundreds or thousands of copies, it is required to have a protection scheme included with the duplication solution.

A common method to provide protection on SD card media is using the CID number of the card. The CID number is a value which is put into “read only memory” of an SD card and that CID number is unique to each card and follows the card around. It is not possible to copy or duplicate the CID number… it is a value which is designed to only be read. In addition to the unique number, there takes specific vendor commands to read the CID number from the card itself.

With an SD Card Duplicator from Nexcopy it is possible read the CID number because Nexcopy uses the special vendor commands to read the CID value.

So this is what a mapping company can do:

  • Encrypt the mapping data
  • Include a text file with the decryption code for the maps
  • Include the CID number of the physical card in the text file mentioned above
  • Since CID numbers are unique to each card, write the unique key code text file to each card

With the SD Card Duplicator the user can export the CID numbers in bulk during the duplication process. When the CID numbers are exported in bulk, the company can write a script to generate key code text files which can only be decrypted by the card which holds the correct CID value.

The final step of the SD Card Duplicator would be writing the encrypted map data to all the SD cards (or microSD cards) and make a second duplication pass to perform the unique data stream of the encrypted file which holds the CID number and key code to each individual card.

There is certainly some custom scrips or batch files which the end-user would need to write, but the bulk of the duplicator process would be done by the Nexcopy SD Card Duplicator.

SD Card Duplicator

Secure Digital (SD) is a proprietary non-volatile memory card format created by the SD Association (SDA) for use in portable devices.

The standard was introduced in August 1999 as an improvement over MultiMediaCards (MMCs) by a collaboration of SanDisk, Panasonic (Matsushita), and Toshiba, and has since become the industry standard.

In January 2000, the companies also established the SD Association (SDA), a non-profit organization, to promote and develop SD Card standards.

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Did Aleratec Go Out of Business? 2022

From all accounts it appears Aleratec closed their doors and out of business from sometime starting in February, 2022.

GetUSB.info attempted several calls to the corporate office in search of comment, but received no response. Furthermore, it appears that Google has removed Aleratec from their search results because their domain www.aleratec.com has been inactive for more than 30 days. We are posting this information in case end-users are looking for company support or warranty information.

Aleratec, Inc. was a family-owned California-based company with two decades of experience designing, developing, and marketing high-performance, dependable, and easy-to-use products.

Greg Morris, CEO of Nexcopy Inc, a similar company profile and also based in Southern California commented today after request, “I’ve known about Perry Solomon, the CEO, well over twenty years and he was always a good person to speak with regarding industry trends and business practices. Extremely friendly and approachable. Perry was focused on bring a solution to the market which brought true value to the end-user. I wish him the best of luck with his next business adventure.”

Aeratec offered PC-based and standalone flash memory duplicators, as well as CD and DVD duplicators, hard drive duplicators, and hard drive demolishers. In addition, Aleratec provided a “charge and guard” cabinet for charging portable devices such as tablets. The charge and guard cabinet proved especially useful in schools.

Some products are still available online at the time of this posting, but the majority of models appear to be out of stock or on back order.

If Aleratec would like to comment or provide information for post sales support and parts, please reach out at: gmo @ getusb dot info and we can post the information in this article

aleratec out of business

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SD Card Duplicator Equipment

GetFlashMemory.info has reviewed SD Card Duplicators by Nexcopy.  Our results found the product to be reliable, fast and accurate.

They manufacture both PC connected and standalone systems to fit any type application

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